The environmental protection industry includes three aspects: First, the production and operation of environmental protection equipment (products), mainly referring to water pollution treatment equipment, air pollution treatment equipment, solid waste treatment and disposal equipment, noise control equipment, radioactive and electromagnetic pollution protection equipment, environmental protection monitoring Production and operation of analytical instruments and environmental protection pharmaceuticals. The second is comprehensive utilization of resources, which refers to the use of various products recovered from waste resources, comprehensive utilization of waste residue, comprehensive utilization of waste liquid (water), comprehensive utilization of waste gas, and recycling of used materials. Third, environmental services refer to the provision of technical, management, and engineering design and construction services for environmental protection.
1. Natural resources development and protection type environmental protection industry
Natural resources development and protection-type environmental protection industries mainly include various activities for the development and protection of natural resources in order to improve the ecological environment, protect the ecological environment from further deterioration, and restore the balance of the environmental ecosystem. Such as vegetation restoration, desert management, groundwater resource development and protection, species diversity, and development of new energy sources, etc., it is an important part of sustainable development and plays an important role in the current world environmental protection and China's implementation of sustainable development strategies. Resources are an important part of the green national account. Taking natural resources development and protection activities as an important part of the environmental protection industry is conducive to overcoming the severe situation of China's separate management of resources and the environment, which leads to environmental degradation and reduced levels of sustainable development.
The input of natural resources development and protection-type environmental protection industries mainly include various research, production (governance) costs (such as desert control) and their abandoned short-term benefits in resources development and protection (such as green space construction) and ecological balance restoration (Such as returning farmland to forest, returning farmland to lake). Its output is mainly an increase in the value of environmental resources (such as forest reserves, water resources reserves, species diversification, etc.) and various losses (such as floods, land desertification, etc.). This can be seen in the increase in the net domestic product (EDP) when the Economic and Environmental Integration Accounting System (SEEA) is adopted.
The input of natural resources development and conservation-type environmental protection industry is huge, and its output effect is not reflected in the national economic statistics system when SEEA is not perfect, but increasing its output is an important way to achieve sustainable development of the national economy. Is a long-term benefit. Most of the economic activities in this type of industry have huge investment, slow effect, and the consumption of output products has the characteristics of "public goods" such as indivisibility and non-exclusiveness, which basically do not have the conditions for marketization. Therefore, the development strategy should be based on the government's overall planning, unified investment, and unified management. The main reasons for the deterioration of China's environmental resources are insufficient macro management and insufficient capital investment. In terms of development countermeasures, with the strengthening of China's economic strength, capital investment should be increased at a faster pace. At the same time, planning and management of capital use should be strengthened.
2. Clean production-oriented environmental protection industry
Cleaner production is the effective use of resources, the substitution of scarce resources, and the reuse of resources to achieve the conservation and rational use of resources. In the production process, reduce the generation and discharge of waste and pollutants to achieve waste and pollutants. Reduction, recycling and harmlessness. From the perspective of environmental protection, the clean production-type environmental protection industry mainly includes research, development and the use of advanced technologies and equipment in the production process, reducing the three waste emissions in the production process, improving the efficiency of resource and energy utilization, and reducing harmful substances in products. Content and so on.
As early as the "China Agenda 21" announced in 1994, China included clean production in its sustainable development strategies and major actions, and formulated action bases, goals, and action content. In 1998, the State Council's "Government Work Report" also called for "encouraging enterprises to implement cleaner production." Taking cleaner production as an important part of the environmental protection industry is an important guarantee for achieving sustainable development. It is also an important strategic measure to achieve the transformation of pollution control from "end-of-line governance" to "front-end governance." Important countermeasures.
The inputs and output products of the cleaner production-type environmental protection industry are dispersed in the production process of each industry. They are all market-oriented industries, and each industry has a self-accumulation and development mechanism. The main factor restricting the development of China's cleaner production-based environmental protection industry is the market mechanism. Therefore, as a whole, an enterprise-oriented development strategy should be adopted. The government should increase its support for cleaner production technology innovation in terms of policies and funds to promote enterprise research, development, and promotion of cleaner production technologies, equipment, and clean products. At the same time, measures have been taken in China to promote the implementation of the ISO14000 standard, cultivate, develop and improve the environmental protection industry market and standardize market order.
3. Pollution source controlled environmental protection industry
Pollution source-controlled environmental protection industries are manifested in two large parts in reality. One is the various pollution treatment processes in various production enterprises and the provision of waste and pollutant treatment, comprehensive utilization and recycling technologies and equipment for these enterprises. The second is the centralized treatment, comprehensive utilization and recovery of various emissions, which is an extension of the production process of the enterprise in nature. The input and output of the latter can be independently counted, while the former is difficult to divide into independent industrial sectors, and it is more difficult to perform input-output (especially output) statistics.
The input of the pollution-control environmental protection industry includes the product, various intermediate products and labor provided by upstream companies; its output includes two aspects of providing pollutant treatment services for polluting enterprises and protecting the environment. The duality of this function is its industry Development provides a prerequisite.
The theory of environmental economics believes that with the gradual improvement of the economic system and the gradual transformation of government functions, pollution source control services have more characteristics of public goods, and their inputs will rely more on public inputs in government finances. However, the output function of pollution-controlled environmental protection industries has a dual nature; on the one hand, protecting the environment is a function of public goods produced by such industries; on the other hand, it also has the function of providing pollutant treatment for pollutant discharge enterprises. Judging from the perspective, it has a relatively complete input-output system. After the pollution source control function is socialized, its service function has a market-based basis (that is, to provide pollution control as a service to various emission companies). Therefore, different industrial policies can be adopted at different stages of economic development. As China is currently in the primary stage of economic development, in the longer term, it should adopt a development strategy that is guided by government investment, policy-oriented, and enterprise-dominated, relying on the joint role of the market and the government through various administrative functions. And economic means to guide the participation of social, scientific, financial, management and other comprehensive forces to form a new mechanism of "government organization, departmental leadership, and corporate funding", providing market-oriented conditions for pollution-control environmental protection industries, and forming a benign accumulation And development mechanisms. At the higher stage of economic development, due to its economies of scale and spillover effects, while adjusting administrative and economic policies, the government controls this part of the industry through government holdings and acquisitions, and uses it as an infrastructure for construction And management, the government to provide this part of public goods services.
4. Pollution control environmental protection industry
Pollution treatment refers to a way to reduce the content of harmful substances in the environment by using pollution treatment technologies after the pollutants have been discharged into the environment and external external economic effects have occurred, thereby improving the environmental quality.
The input of pollution control environmental protection industry includes the product, various intermediate products and labor provided by upstream enterprises, and its related industries are mainly the production enterprises of the product and intermediate products. The development of pollution control environmental protection industry can provide demand for the development of its upstream enterprises (mainly environmental protection machinery and equipment manufacturing industry and chemical industry). However, due to the complete public goods characteristics of its output, some environmental problems involve the entire basin and even global environmental problems. Moreover, the investment and operating costs of pollution control are much larger than those of pollution control, and the cost-effectiveness ratio of the output It is very low and does not have the conditions for marketization at all.
Due to the large amount of historical debts and rapid economic development, China's environmental situation is quite severe, pollution control is complex and tasks are heavy, coupled with the backwardness of China ’s environmental protection laws and regulations and environmental protection technology, its economic strength is weak, and China ’s environment is in danger of continuing to deteriorate. . For the pollution-control environmental protection industry, we should adopt a development strategy that takes the government as the main body, step up the establishment and improvement of the environmental protection laws and regulations system, strengthen law enforcement, implement direct government control measures, and severely crack down and restrict all kinds of non-compliance and lax enforcement. At the same time, the central and local governments at all levels should formulate and implement environmental planning goals, implement planned capital investment, and improve various environmental protection fund management methods, and effectively assume responsibility for controlling pollution and improving environmental quality.
Due to the complexity of environmental protection work, the development of environmental protection industry should comprehensively use market means and government forces to formulate development strategies and tactics according to the characteristics of various environmental protection industries. In particular, through the construction of the market mechanism, we must make full use of various economic means with low investment and quick results to promote the rapid development of cleaner production-type environmental protection industries and pollution source control-type environmental protection industries and reduce the pressure on China's environmental ecology.
 According to Wang Jinnan, deputy director and chief engineer of the Environmental Planning Institute of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, during the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, China ’s demand for pollution control was huge, and demand in many areas reached the level of 100 billion: 133 billion yuan, especially the demand for denitration; urban sewage treatment is about 430 billion yuan; garbage treatment is about 263.6 billion yuan; urban drinking water source restoration project investment is about 39.9 billion yuan; key river water pollution improvement projects are worth 138.5 billion yuan ; The rural environmental protection project for the people is about 73.9 billion yuan. Such a huge investment demand will stimulate the rapid development of industries such as environmental protection equipment and pollution control services.
In addition, Wang Jinnan predicts that during the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, China will increase its planning for rural environmental protection projects. 
In Wang Shiwen's opinion, the environmental protection industry can be divided into two major directions in the future, one is to prevent and prevent the deterioration of environmental pollution, and the other is to deal with the pollution control and environment developed after the pollution and damage have been caused. Repair business. He believes that the pollution control industry will reach its peak in the next 10 years, and the environmental recycling and preventive environmental enterprises will show a rapid development trend, and companies engaged in environmental remediation will become a major industrial force. 
Zhao Penggao believes that the potential of the environmental protection industry is huge, especially in terms of pollution control. He said that the number of urban sewage treatment pipeline networks and waste treatment plants during the "12th Five-Year Plan" period will be doubled compared to the "11th Five-Year Plan" period. At present, there are still 435 counties in China that do not have sewage treatment plants and 1,000 major counties have no garbage Treatment plant. Under the severe situation of environmental pollution, China should highlight the key points, reasonably define the scope of the environmental protection industry, attach importance to pollution control technologies, equipment, products and services, downplay clean production, resource recycling and other industries, and guide the development of environmental pollution control service industries .